A) Hydrogen bomb was tested in the Marshall Islands
B) Federal Civil Defense Administration was formed
C) Operation Alert was staged
D) National Aeronautics and Space Administration was formed
The correct answer here is D. None of the other ones is possible.
The Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957. When the Soviets did that, it convinced the United States that the Russians had gotten ahead in technology. This was a problem because it might mean that the Russians could get ballistic nuclear missiles before the US. In the long term, it might mean that the US would fall further behind the Russians in military technology. As a way to combat this potential problem, the US government started trying to improve scientific education. It also created NASA.
All of the other options you mention are things that happened before Sputnik was launched. They cannot possibly be effects of Sputnik.