What did Socrates mean by the phrase "Know Thyself"?  

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What Socrates means by this is that people must know themselves before they can claim to know anything else. Socrates was famous for going around Athens, challenging people on their understanding of certain concepts such as justice. In the ensuing dialogues it would become immediately apparent that the great philosopher's interlocutors didn't know what they were talking about. To Socrates, such ignorance ultimately derived from a lack of self-knowledge. Remedying this deficiency would have the happy consequence of gaining a greater knowledge of one's fellow man. In knowing oneself, one would also be knowing others.

The maxim "Know thyself," though not an invention of Socrates, is nonetheless a perfect expression of his whole philosophical approach. For Socrates, all knowledge must start with the...

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