What did Jem and Scout learn by observing the adults around them in To Kill a Mockingbird (i.e. Atticus, Calpurnia, Miss Maudie)?
JEM. Jem learns from Miss Maudie about his father's importance in the Maycomb community following the trial (Chapter 22). Jem discovers that Calpurnia is one of the best educated members of Maycomb's black community, and that she is a respected member of her church (Chapter 12). Atticus teaches Jem a great deal: Jem learns that Atticus is a humble man who doesn't brag about his skills (Chapter 10); he also witnesses first-hand Atticus' courtroom abilities (Chapters 17-21).
SCOUT. Scout knows that Miss Maudie is a friend who she can trust (Chapter 5), and she sees that Miss Maudie is loyal to her father when she stands up to Mrs. Merriweather at the missionary circle tea (Chapter 24). Scout learns how to write cursive from Calpurnia and gets lessons in manners from her as well (Chapter 3). Scout also sees that Calpurnia can take charge during a crisis when she warns the neighbors about the mad dog (Chapter 10). From her father, Scout learns about the importance that one should "climb into his skin and walk around in it" before judging people (Chapter 3). She sees his personal bravery when he confronts the lynch mob at the jail (Chapter 15), and how he is willing to protect the innocent Boo and how he is like a mockingbird, too (Chapter 30).
they start off the story innocent when scout asks atticus what rape is and Atticus gives her a simple answer of "rape was carnal knowledge of a female by force and without consent" and during the trial they realized that their dad can't do everything and that everything doesn't happen how it should. like just because he was black he was discriminated against.