Nobel Prizes in Medicine, which is the prize that Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg won, are not typically given out for “inventions.” Instead, they are typically given when people discover new scientific facts that are medically important. Blumberg won his Nobel Prize for making discoveries having to do with Hepatitis B.
Blumberg was a researcher who did work on the ways in which people differed in terms of how susceptible they were to various diseases. He was particularly interested in infectious diseases that were caused by viruses. In the course of doing his research, Blumberg discovered the virus that causes Hepatitis B. Blumberg then worked with other people to develop ways to detect this virus in blood and, eventually, ways to inoculate people against it. This work caused Blumberg to be awarded the Nobel Prize in 1976.