Culturally, both the Aztecs and Mayans shared a religion. The Mayan god Quetzalcoatl was said to have left the Mayans and headed east across the ocean, and he would one day return. The Aztecs believed in this myth, and in 1519 when Hernan Cortes and his men sailed to the Yucatan and marched towards the Aztec capital city at Tenochtitlan, the emperor Moctezuma II believed it was Quetzalcoatl returning. They also both believed that human sacrifice was necessary into order to feed the gods. This was done to ensure the gods would be able to keep the world working and in peace. Both the Mayans and Aztec also built pyramids to honor their gods. The pyramid was the center of the city, showing religious importance to both civilizations.
Economically, both the Mayans and Aztec had agricultural economies. They also both bolstered their economy with selling woven goods and jewelry.
Politically, both the Mayans and Aztecs were ruled by a King/Monarch. This monarch was chosen because of his lineage to the gods; much like in China and Western Europe, we see the importance of connection to the divines in the legitimacy to rule.
Geographically, both the Mayans and Aztecs were based in current day Mexico. the Mayans stayed moreso on the Yucatan Peninsula, the south western portion of Mexico that juts out into the Gulf of Mexico. The Aztecs began over Lake Texcoco, but with military expansion, pushed out into much of central and southern Mexico. Aztec allied states allowed for Aztec control to extend into what used to be Mayan territory.
Technologically, the Mayans and Aztecs both did not have access to iron tools. Both used stone weapons and tools for fighting or crafting. Both also used irrigation systems to sustain their agriculture.