The dynamic of global pragmatism and ideological opposition might be able to best describe Russian and American Relations during this time period. When Russia goes Communist, there is a fairly strong ideological split between them. The state controlled economic order in Russia of the 1920s stood in fairly stark opposition to the free wheeling economic boom of the same time period. Capitalism gone wild would describe it. The pragmatic element to the relationship came in both nations' fear of Hitler and threat of Nazism. Stalin's pacts with Hitler turned out to be fairly worthless and the relationship acquired a practical reality in that neither country would have benefited if Hitler's power had gone unchecked and unopposed. After the Second World War, the reality of the two superpowers caused the relationship to resume its ideological opposition.
I think the best way to describe this is to say that relations between the two countries started out very badly, got better, and then got worse again.
After the revolution in 1917, the Soviet Union came to be and the US would not recognize it as a country. The US even tried to help overthrow it.
But then, during World War II, the US and the Soviet Union became allies. This happened because we thought Hitler was a greater threat.
After World War II, the Cold War started and the two countries became enemies for decades.