Dr. Sun Yat-sen did not succeed in modernizing China because the instability of the country was too great; and the task impossible. Dr. Sun proclaimed a Democratic Republic following the abdication of the last Qing Emperor; however China was saddled with unequal treaties with foreign nations which had been forced upon it. These countries frequently interfered in Chinese affairs, and prevented modernization; which would have not been in their best interest. It was anticipated that the Versailles Treaty would increase Chinese sovereignty; but instead, it only increased Japanese interference in Chinese affairs. Sun had hoped to expel all foreigners and institute universal suffrage, but the Communists infiltrated his party, and soon controlled it. At his death, Chaing Kai-Shek briefly pushed back the Communists, but they ultimately succeeded and took over the country.