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What are the definitions of formal citizenship, substantive citizenship, and insurgent citizenship? Why are these distinctions important? How is citizenship “continually constituted and challenged through political struggle”? Why are immigrants entitled to full civil, political, and social rights, including higher education?

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Duncan Ellington eNotes educator | Certified Educator

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Formal citizenship is a person's "legal" citizenship. Substantive citizenship includes the protected rights that "formal citizens" actually and in reality obtain through their legal citizenship. Insurgent citizenship is considered a person and/or group of formal citizens who believe that they are being denied their protected rights under their formal citizenship. Insurgent citizenship is the act of participating in a movement or revolt in an effort to obtain whatever right the members of the movement believe they are being denied. The global "Occupy" movement is an example of what some anthropologists consider insurgent citizenship. Formal, substantive, and insurgent citizenship are not different types of citizenships offered by a particular country; rather, they are anthropological and sociological concepts. Substantive and insurgent citizens usually have formal (i.e., legal) citizenship.

I am not sure we can actually state that these concepts are important. In my opinion, an anthropologist...

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