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What is the definition of Post-Modernism and its relation to literature?

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Postmodernism refers to a period in history (roughly 1945-present) and also an artistic movement with particular themes and styles. Postmodernism is a reaction against Modernist themes and philosophies. Postmodernists are particularly skeptical of what Jean-Francois Lyotard called "grand narratives." A grand narrative is a complete, totalizing system of thought and practice. Some examples are Communism, Capitalism, Industrialization. Grand narratives can also be artistic movements such as Futurism or the Avante-garde. They can also be political as well as theological. Lyotard raged against grand narratives because he thought that unifying a world under one way of life was always done so through violence (colonialism, Nazis, failed communist states, imperialism, exploitation under capitalism). Also, and this speaks more to the arts and meaning in everyday experience, uniting the world or nation (in the guise of progress) by enforcing a singular way of living...

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