Identify specific beliefs of a Hindu.
The original question had to be edited. I would also suggest that the question is fairly wide ranging. Some narrowing of it would enable stronger responses.
If one is accepting the premise that the "specific beliefs of a Hindu" can be applied to the religious arena, I think that one notion of the good to which Hindus subscribe would rest with reincarnation. Many Hindus embrace the idea that life and consciousness of being in the world consists of being reincarnated from previous births into this one. The life we lead in this birth, as a consequence, will help to impact the life we lead in the next one. For the Hindu, this notion is karma, and along with understanding its role of human cosmology, reincarnation is accepted as one of the most foundational beliefs in Hinduism. The idea of reincarnation and what acts does in a particular lifetime is of large importance to someone who would embrace themselves as a believer in "Hinduism."
Hindu dharma (faith) is also popularly known as Sanaatana Dharma, and its basic tenets are similar to most religions. One of its defining features is the Karmic cycle, which prescribes that the spiritual evolution of humans (souls, rather) are governed by the cause-and-effect of our deeds. To attain salvation, or the soul's release from this cycle, one's karmic balance needs to reach zero - there should be no good deeds that one must receive favor for in their earthly form, or misdeeds that one must take another earthly form to pay off debts with.
Spiritual wisdom ordains that the soul's evolution runs in tandem with the cyclical nature of Karma - that when actions are performed with clear understanding of the effect, as well as informed detachment from the effect, the soul is able to ascend higher in its journey.