What countries in Europe won their independence during 1830 and 1831? In what city did the European revolutions of 1848 begin?
In the years 1830 to 1831, political changes swept through Europe. They were begun, in a way, by a revolution in France. Charles X of France had tried to take much more power for the crown in July 1830. In response to that, a liberal revolution drove him from power -- he abdicated and went into exile. But France was already independent.
The upheaval in France spread to Belgium, which rebelled against Dutch rule and gained independence in 1830. Serbia also gained independence in that year.
Poland rebelled against Russia in 1830 but their rebellion was crushed.
The revolutions of 1848 began in Paris.