what are the controlled, independent and dependent variables in an experiment, where you test and observe the reactions of acids and carbonates? acids: hydrochloric and nitric acid. carbonates :sodium, lithium, calcium, ammonium and nickel (II) carbonate.

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One type of experiment you could perform would be to compare the reactivity of HCl and HNO3 with the various carbonates you have listed.  You would control the concentration of the acids and of the carbonates so they are the same in every test. You would also want to control the initial temperature of all the solutions so you can measure any changes in temperature in the various reactions. You would also control the rate of addition of the acid solution to the carbonate solution.

The acids would be the independent variables and the carbonates the dependent variables. Thus, the behavior of each carbonate would depend on the type of acid used.

Some of the effects you could observe and/or measure would be:

any changes in color, any formation of a precipitate, any change in temperature, the volume of gas released, change in pH as the reaction proceeds, do all of the carbonates react with both acids?

You could also rank the carbonates in terms of their relative reactivity with each of the acids.

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