What contributions did Islamic culture make to the development of Europe?
Islamic culture influences the development of Europe in many different ways. Most of this cultural diffusion occured as a result of the Crusades. Returning European crusaders brought back some of the best aspect of Islamic culture which helped move European culture forward.
Military technologies were brought back and influenced European castle design. Having faced imposing Islamic fortresses for many years, Europeans were quick to incoperate many of the most formidable design features into their own constructions.
Islamic ideas regarding taxation, government structure, and social mobility began to influence the beginning of European nation-state development.
Trade developed between the two worlds as well. The Italians were quick to take advantage of the fact that many crusaders brought back trade goods from the east that many people wanted, and the resulting trade boom created a more cosmopolitan Europe. This would also ultimately lead to the age of exploration as European nations raced to find better and faster trade routes to the east.
Scientific achievements also made their way back to Europe. Optics, mathematics, engineering, even games like chess also came back to Europe and influenced the emergence of the Rennisaunce.