The question asks about the consequences of modern imperialism of France (i.e. as manifested near the end of 19th century). The consequences of imperialism have been and continue to be profound in the current culture and development of most of the world outside of Europe and North America. Therefore, while not synonymous, it is useful to narrow the question by focusing on the effects of colonialism by the major western powers, in this case France.
Colonialism in the late 19th century had several important and long-lasting effects:
Creation of economies skewed toward raw material and primary resource production at the expense of higher value added, techonological or knowledge-intensive activities.
Co-option or destruction of local political structures, and the creation of local elites beholden to foreign power.
Dependence on the part of the colonial ruler on maintenance of far-flung resource bases which had to be defended militarily; i.e. it meant massive expenditure of state resources to maintain force projection capabilities.
Corollary to item (3), constant arenas of competition and conflict with other existing and ascendant colonial powers (arguably a primary factor leading up to the First World War).
France’s colonies at the end of the 19th century were concentrated in an East-West axis across western and central Africa, and in southeast Asia (“French Indochina”). The effects described above could be observed clearly in those areas. Beyond the immediate effects, colonial rule has had a long term, continuing legacy that has haunted western nations through the 20th century and into the current day (e.g. the Vietnam conflict, the rise of anti-western Islamic factions, etc.).