The most important consequence of the Age of Exploration was European dominance of the world. After the Age of Exploration was over, Europe had colonies in every corner of the world.
European domination of the world has consequences that continue to be felt today. One can argue that the "developing world" is less developed exactly because it was colonized by the Europeans. Europeans used those areas for their own benefit and so those countries have weak economies and governments today.
Another consequence was the Columbian Exchange. This benefitted Europe in a number of ways and hurt the Americas. Europe got new sources of food like potatoes. The Americas got diseases that killed huge percentages of their people. (They did also get horses and some technology, of course.)
These are two of the most important consequences of the Age of Exploration.