Contrary to the dominant interpretation of so-called "emancipation" and the thirteenth amendment, the thirteenth amendment abolished a specific form of slavery (legalized enslavement of people by non-state actors) and replaced it with mass enslavement via the state. Quite literally, directly after the end of the civil war, several former plantations...
Contrary to the dominant interpretation of so-called "emancipation" and the thirteenth amendment, the thirteenth amendment abolished a specific form of slavery (legalized enslavement of people by non-state actors) and replaced it with mass enslavement via the state. Quite literally, directly after the end of the civil war, several former plantations were transformed into enormous prison farms, which marks the first creation of large scale prisons in the United States. These prisons became filled with thousands of black people, mostly black men, whose labor the state then sold to nearby plantation owners who were in need of workers after they lost their source of free, forced labor. This process became known as convict leasing. And while convict leasing technically began in 1846, after the civil war, the practice sky rocketed with states selling the labor of an entire prison population to plantation owners. The state generated revenue by re-enslaving black people through incarceration (bolstered by Jim Crow laws) and selling them primarily to plantation owners, railroad companies, and, later, mining companies.
Technically, the practice of convict leasing ended in 1928, but the system continues in another form. To this very day, the Angola Prison in Louisiana still exists, which is a 10,000-acre prison farm that was once a 10,000-acre slave plantation. There, mostly black prisoners are forced to work the fields under the guard of mostly armed white men on horseback. Many prisoners throughout the country are forced to work while in prison, and corporations make serious profit off paying prisoners incredibly low wages (averages of fourteen cents to one dollar an hour before deductions) that they wouldn't be able to pay non-incarcerated workers.
Not only were tens of thousands of black people re-enslaved through mass incarceration at the turn of the twentieth century, but all black people endured life under Jim Crow laws that essentially criminalized black existence and bolstered the power of racist whites to brutalize, torture, and kill black people. Lynching black folks was an incredibly common practice that was used by the state and non-state vigilantes alike to keep black people in a state of constant terror. Roughly 175 black people were lynched or burned alive in the year 1900. Racist whites would often attend these public murders to celebrate the white supremacist spectacle.
In addition to re-enslavement via mass incarceration and torture and murders, black folks also faced segregation laws that kept them in a legally inferior status anytime they were in public.