The Coercive Acts, called the "Intolerable Acts" in the colonies, were a series of acts passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party. They were intended to punish the city of Boston and isolate Massachusetts; but only had the effect of bringing formerly distrustful colonies closer together.
Among the acts:
- The Boston Port Act: Closed the port of Boston effective JUly 1, 1774 until the tea destroyed during the Tea Party was paid for.
- Act for Impartial Administration of Justice: Provided that the Royal Governor could transfer the case against any official charged with a crime while in the conduct of his official duty to England. Parliament had taken note that colonial juries uniformly refused to convict suspected smugglers even in the face of overwhelming evidence. The purpose of the act was to prevent British soldiers from being tried and convicted for technical offenses.
- Second Quartering Act: Provided for quartering of British soldiers in private homes if other lodging was not available.
- Massachusetts Government Act: Made all governmental offices in Massachusetts appointive rather than elective. Juries would be selected by the local sheriff, and there would be no town meetings without the Royal Governor's consent. General Thomas Gage was appointed to replace the then sitting governor, Thomas Hutchinson. The end result was that Massachusetts was now under military rule.
Rather than induce cooperation, the Acts actually brought the colonies closer together. Colonies which had previously been suspicious of each other collected food and other provisions to be shipped to Boston. On the day the Boston Port Act was to take effect, Thomas Jefferson called for a day of prayer and fasting in Virginia. The response by the Virginia Royal Governor was to dissolve the Assembly. The assemblymen reassembled in a tavern and passed a resolution calling for a "Continental Congress" to represent all the colonies. This was the first serious attempt to unite the colonies that had any chance of success. George Washington was chosen as a delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress. Before leaving, he wrote to a friend:
The crisis is arrived when we must assert our rights, or submit to every imposition that can be heaped upon us, till custom and use shall make us tame and abject slaves, as the blacks we rule over with such arbitrary sway.