What does Chief Seattle mean by the statement that "day and night cannot dwell together" in his speech on signing of the treaty of Port Elliot?

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Chief Seattle's famous speech was translated into its most popular form over thirty years after it was given. Furthermore, the speech was translated from his native language into Chinook at the time it was given. The words of the speech are actually a translation of a translation. That said, historians agree that Chief Seattle was quite eloquent during the signing of the Treaty of Port Elliot.

In this quote, Chief Seattle acknowledges that day and night are incompatible and that they cannot share the same sky. This has some Biblical connotations as well, as the Bible mentions good as "light" and bad as "dark." Chief Seattle's tribe is considered "dark" in this case, as the whites are considered the forces of progress. This quote also acknowledges that day is the natural successor of night and that the whites therefore are the rightful owners of the land. While the Chief probably did not say most of the quotes attributed to him, this translation gives one an idea of the attitudes of white America at the time, as they saw the chief as giving up his way of life and land to accept the "betterment" of white culture. He acknowledges the incompatibility of white ways and native ways, and he gives up his ways for the progress of white civilization.

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Chief Seattle is simply saying that it's impossible for Native Americans and the white man to live together. In saying this, he's acknowledging the fraught relationship between the two groups that characterized American history up to that point (the mid-19th century). And it's because Chief Seattle realizes that "day and night cannot dwell together" that he is amenable to signing the Treaty of Port Elliott, which will involve his tribe being forced to live on a reservation.

As Native Americans can't live with the white man, and as they cannot defeat him in battle, they have no choice but to accept his terms. In that sense, Chief Seattle is a realist who understands that America is a very different place from what it once was. In the new order of things, there are only three choices open to Native Americans: assimilation, annihilation, or separation. In choosing the latter of the three options, Chief Seattle believes that he's giving his tribe a fighting chance of survival.

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Chief Seattle's words "day and night cannot dwell together" on one hand refers to white settlers and Native Americans. The chief makes this clear in the following line of his speech: "The Red Man has ever fled the approach of the White Man, as the morning mist flees before the morning sun.”

In a broader sense, the chief is speaking metaphorically. Day and night--darkness and light--are diametrically opposed. This idea is ancient. The Bible references it withing its first four lines: "And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness." (ESV version). Later, the Bible says that God is pure light, devoid of any darkness. Think about how this broader, metaphorical meaning might apply to this specific speech. What is Chief Seattle really saying, or implying, about the relationship between white people and Native Americans? Study the rest of the speech. Does Chief Seattle use other metaphorical language? Why, do you think? What is the overall tone of the speech? How does the quotation you are asking about best make sense in light of that tone?

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Please realize that this speech was only written down 30+ years after it was actually given so we have no way at all of knowing if the chief actually said these things...

What he means here is that the Indians and the whites cannot live together.  He is saying that the Indians are night and the whites are day.

By this, he means that the Indians are the people of the past.  He is saying that their time has gone and that now they have to get out of the way for the white people.  The white people are the people whose time is coming.

So he is essentially saying that the Indians are a people of the past and that the past and the future cannot live together.

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