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Hard water is water source with high mineral content. Generally, it is composed of high content of calcium and magnesium ions which are not extremely bad in humans however can pose serious effects on industrial purposes. Water Hardness is a measure of the concentration of the cation present in the water. Softening the water is simply removing those ions. One of the most common methods of softening is the application of Ion-exchange method which is composed of resins or polymers that contain large amount of sodium ions (from common salt). Calcium and magnesium ions will be replaced by sodium ions which apparently can make the water softer.
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