- Gymnosperms do not have and outer-covering or shell around their seeds.
- Gymnosperms do not produce flowers barring a few exceptions.
- Gymnosperms are heterosporous which means that they produce different male and female spores. The microspores develop into pollen grains and the megaspores are in an ovule.
- Gymnosperms produce cones.
- Gymnosperms do not bear fruits.
- Gymnosperms propagate via wind pollination