What is a characteristic of maternal nutrition and the development of abnormal metabolism?
-Malnutrition during pregnancy leads to macrosomia and GI disturbances in the offspring
-Insufficient nutrient intake during pregnancy promotes hypertrophy of the kidneys and hypotension in adulthood
-Nutrition during pregnancy is the chief determinant of pancreatic beta cell growth and thus affects the risk for type 2 diabetes of the offspring
-Malnutrition during pregnancy programs the fetus to modify the genetic composition of the placenta and thereby alter nutrient delivery through the umbilical cord