What changed in history from the time of the early Republic to Cicero?
Original: What changed in history from the time of Philotetes and Cicero?
Since there was no "Philotetes" (the closest is the Homeric hero, Philoctetes), as someone who teaches Roman history, I'm reading this as a common question about the change from the early republic with a hopelessly garbled name.
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The failure of the Roman Republic was caused by a series of social changes that gradually culminated in making the Republic ungovernable.
The first major change was the acquisition of an empire. With the eastern and western conquests and the Punic Wars, Rome acquired a vast territory but the Republic lacked efficient governing mechanisms for an empire, leading to fragmented lines of authority.
Over time, members of the senatorial class had acquired vast tracts of public land and farm land was increasingly consolidated into large estates cultivated by slaves. Independent farmers who had once had enough property to qualify for military service moved into the city, leaving the land to the big estate owners and military service to foreign legions.
Electoral reforms led to the plebs being increasingly powerful They were bribed with bread and circuses to support often violently warring political factions within the republic.
By the time of Cicero, in many ways, the nominal republic was functioning as a system of warring oligarchs. The republic had ceased to function as intended long before it fell.
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