Why do you think the Puritans succeeded in establishing permanent settlements in New England?
The Puritans' success can be attributed to two main factors. These factors are the nature of their religious beliefs and the fact that they came to the New World largely as family groups.
The Puritans' religious beliefs caused them to believe very strongly in hard work and improving themselves and their society. They did not believe that they could achieve salvation this way because they believed their fate was predestined. But they did believe that their actions could give clues as to whether they would achieve salvation. Therefore, they tended to want to work hard and get ahead in life. They also believed that it was important to act in the correct ways as a society so that God would reward the society here on Earth. For these reasons, the Puritans were hard workers, a trait which helped them to succeed.
In addition, the Puritans generally came in family groups and even as whole communities. This allowed them to have a very stable society from the beginning. It helped to create a society in which people got along relatively well and had good, happy lives. This is important in their success as well.
We should not forget that the Puritans had a great deal of initial help from the Indians as well.
Overall, though, if we are looking at factors having to do with the Puritans themselves, religious beliefs and the presence of families are two major factors in their success.
The Puritans were initially successful because they came over in family units. These people were actually skilled tradesmen in England before they left for the Netherlands and finally New England—they had building skills and could farm. Part of the Puritan faith was that God favors the successful. By working hard and being successful, one showed God's favor in one's life. This gave the Puritans more incentive to be frugal and industrious. The Puritans also formed successful relationships with the natives who taught them their farming practices. Puritan birth rates were also among the highest in the New World, and all adult males were expected to want their own farms, which led to the settlement's expansion.
The Puritans' faith led them to see themselves as forming a godly society for the rest of the world to emulate. Puritan leaders referred to their settlement as a "city on a hill." The Puritans, even in the early days of high mortality, saw that they had no choice but to succeed in the New World. By giving their settlement a higher purpose, they retained the courage to stay.