The central theme is whether the wall is good or bad for the relationship between the two neighbors. In a larger context, the theme is about the effect of emotional and physical barriers. The speaker, initially, seems to think that the wall is inherently a detriment, unnatural, something that separates and therefore is a barrier to an open dialogue/relationship.
However, he does still see and converse with his neighbor and the wall does provide a sense of privacy which is not inherently bad. Also, there is the play on "mending" as both a verb and an adjective. As an adjective, the wall 'mends' their relationship by keeping them in communication albeit physically separated by the wall. As a verb, the act or ritual of the two neighbors getting together to "mend" the wall is an event that brings the two together.
And even though the speaker finds the wall unnatural, it is he who lets his neighbor know it is time to mend the wall. So, it is ambiguous as to whether he really doesn't want the wall there. His neighbor may be thinking the same thing. Do we need this wall? Does this ritual of gathering to mend the wall serve as our only means of communication? And if so, it is ironic that the ritual to mend this physical barrier is also a ritual of connection.