Visceral pain is characterized in terms of pathophysiological by the special nature and the impulses that produce it and by the particular ways in which their transmission is achieved. Long time thought that viscera would lack sensitivity.And indeed, surgeons have long observed that exciting that typically produce pain in the range of somatic sensitivity (pricking, cutting, cautery), remain unanswered in the area of visceral pain.Explanation reside in the special nature of pulse able to excite visceral intercepts . It is recognized that visceral intercepts excitement are susceptible to be conditioned by spastic contraction of smooth muscle, or distention beyond the limits of an organ. Pathways of transmission of these pulses depend on the nervous system and they are: associated visceral fibers, spinal ganglion, posterior horn of the spinal cord.In terms of clinical visceral pain is rather imprecise, diffuse localized and generally correspond anatomically to the place of visceral interested.Location of pain corresponds to anatomical position of visceral affected.
Location of abdominal pain according to cause that produces it: • Diffuse spread: acute peritonitis, primitive or secondary to organ perforations, chronic peritonitis, enterocolitis, acute poisoning, intestinal obstruction.
• In epigastrium: gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer, pyloric stenosis, hiatus hernia, acute and chronic cholecystitis, gall stones and dyskinesias, biliary colic, hepatomegaly of stasis, acute and chronic pancreatitis. • Umbilical Region: peptic ulcer, acute and chronic pancreatitis, acute enterocolitis, mesenteric vessels sclerosis or abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm. • On the flanks: colitis, reno-ureteral colic. • In hypogastrium: acute and chronic cystitis, bladder stones, bladder cancer and tuberculosis, metroanexite, uterine cancer. • In right hypochondriasis: acute and chronic hepatitis, liver abscess, hepatomegaly of stasis, liver cancer, acute and chronic cholecystitis, abscess subfrenic, peptic ulcer, appendicitis, skin, kidney stones right.
• In left hypochondriasis: splenic abscess and heart, the small curvature of the stomach ulcer, aerogastria, subfrenic abscess, skin, kidney stones left.