What are the causes and effects of Gandhi's Independence Movement in India?

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India was a colony of England for longer than some of its other colonies. The British were not just figureheads. They imposed their rule on the country and ignored the people's wishes, culture and religion. Ghandi attempted to oust them without violence.
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The implications of this question are fairly profound.  I would submit that the primary cause of Gandhi's Independence Movement was the British Colonial rule over India and formulating an effective response to it.  The most obvious effect of this would be the removal of the British, who recognized that after World War II, holding on to their colonial empire would be nearly impossible.  It is at this point where much here becomes complex.  As Gandhi kept most of India together during the anti- British phase of his movement, he had a considerably more difficult time maintaining this cohesion when the British were ultimately removed.  It might be that another one of the effects of the Gandhian movement was to unleash a great deal of tensions between the divergent groups which found common ground in a common hatred of British Rule.  Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs amongst others had an easier time finding unity under Gandhi's rallying cry of British injustice.  These tensions which might have been subterranean acquired a great deal of power and traction when Gandhi's cause had been accomplished.

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The major cause of Gandhi's independence movement in India was the fact that the British had colonized India and were ruling it for the benefit of Britain rather than for the benefit of the Indians.  (They also tended to keep essentially all the top jobs in the government for British only, regardless of the qualifications of Indians.)  British rule grew more and more annoying to Indians over the years, especially as more of them became educated.

The major effect of Gandhi's movement, of course, was that India won its independence in 1947.  I suppose that you could say that a secondary impact was the partition of India and Pakistan that occurred in that same year.  The independence movement had been largely separated along religious lines and that helped cause a strong desire among Muslims to have their own country.

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