What is the cause of kidney stones in small children?

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ako6777 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Often times, kidney stones develop in children due to some underlying condition (abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder).  Generally, they develop when the amount of calcium, oxalate, cystine, or uric acid, are at high levels.  These substance form crystals that which become anchored in the kidney and increase in size.  

Kidney stones may also occur due to low fluid intake, a Ketogenic diet (diet low in carbs), cystic fibrosis, and certain medicines (Lasix, Diamox, or Aloprim).

Kidney stones have a higher prevelance in Caucasian children than in African American children.  The occur more often in boys than girls.  In boys they usually occur in the first decade of life while in girls they occur later.  This is due to the fact that boys are more likely to have obstructive urinary  malformations that are caught early.  Girls on the other hand are more likely to develop kidney stones after puberty.

lynn30k eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Children get kidney stones for the same reasons adults do--sedentary lifestyles, fast foods high in sodium, low water intake, and high levels of sugar in their diets. Obesity increases the risk. It is a sad commentary on the state of the health of US children that we are seeing a great increase in the incidence in kidney stones in children. The following quote is taken from the link I have attached:

The growing incidence of kidney stones in children can be linked to the modern diet and lifestyle, says Gary Faerber, MD, a urologist at the University of Michigan Health System.

I never heard of kidney stones in young children until recently.

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