What factors caused the Industrial Revolution?
While the spinning jenny and other inventions that sprung from the scientific revolution were important to the birth of the Industrial Revolution, other underlying factors were also important. The strength and efficiency of England's agricultural system were important factors. As the demand for farmers decreased, this led to a supply of workers for manufacturing. In fact, England's population was also on the rise which further fueled the growth of the factory system. The growing population also created demand for manufactured goods and capital to invest in industrialism.
The availability of coal in England was important as well. Coal was used as a more efficient alternative to wood to fuel steam machinery. For resources that were not available, colonial trade networks were established to bring in materials for manufacturing. These networks also increased demand for the product and provided new markets for manufactured goods. The success of the early industrial model created excess capital that was reinvested in technology and efficiency.