What is the cause of Industrial Revolution in England?

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There are a number of different views on causes of the Industrial Revolution in England. Eurocentrists argue that there are innate features of Europeans that allowed the Industrial Revolution to happen in Europe and not, for example, in the Caribbean or China. That said, it is more likely that the...

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There are a number of different views on causes of the Industrial Revolution in England. Eurocentrists argue that there are innate features of Europeans that allowed the Industrial Revolution to happen in Europe and not, for example, in the Caribbean or China. That said, it is more likely that the agricultural revolution (and the resultant surplus of food) allowed for a surplus of labor in the form of people who could work in new machining industries. Next, the mineral resources (such as coal) found in Britain allowed the steam engine to run. This coal was also close to the surface, and so easily mined. The British also had a legal system that protected private property, which lends itself to an industrial revolution by motivating the individual (and this is also why the Industrial Revolution is closely related to capitalism as an economic system). Finally, the burgeoning colonial empires ruled by Britain furnished a "captive audience" of consumers for British goods.

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A major cause of the Industrial revolution was the agricultural revolution which preceded it. The agricultural revolution was part of the Columbian Exchange, when new crops such as maize (corn) and potatoes were exported to England. These new crops led to increased health and less infant mortality resulting in a population explosion in England. Also, the basic price of food went down and a much smaller percentage of a family's income was needed to purchase food; which left more money for clothes, etc. More people with less expense for food created a demand for manufactured products which had not existed before, and gave rise to industrialization; first in the textile industry. It should be noted that England was ripe for Industrialization not only because of its population but also because of its stable government, its abundance of navigable waters which could be used not only for transportation but also in the production of steam; and also a large amount of iron ore deposits near the surface which were easily accessible. So when the Industrial Revolution began in England, it found itself on very fertile soil.

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