What caused the Industrial Revolution in England?

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There are a number of different views on causes of the Industrial Revolution in England. Eurocentrists argue that there are innate features of Europeans that allowed the Industrial Revolution to happen in Europe and not, for example, in the Caribbean or China. That said, it is more likely that the agricultural revolution (and the resultant surplus of food) allowed for a surplus of labor in the form of people who could work in new machining industries. Next, the mineral resources (such as coal) found in Britain allowed the steam engine to run. This coal was also close to the surface, and so easily mined. The British also had a legal system that protected private property, which lends itself to an industrial revolution by motivating the individual (and this is also why the Industrial Revolution is closely related to capitalism as an economic system). Finally, the burgeoning colonial empires ruled by Britain furnished a "captive audience" of consumers for British goods.

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A major cause of the Industrial revolution was the agricultural revolution which preceded it. The agricultural revolution was part of the Columbian Exchange, when new crops such as maize (corn) and potatoes were exported to England. These new crops led to increased health and less infant mortality resulting in a population explosion in England. Also, the basic price of food went down and a much smaller percentage of a family's income was needed to purchase food; which left more money for clothes, etc. More people with less expense for food created a demand for manufactured products which had not existed before, and gave rise to industrialization; first in the textile industry. It should be noted that England was ripe for Industrialization not only because of its population but also because of its stable government, its abundance of navigable waters which could be used not only for transportation but also in the production of steam; and also a large amount of iron ore deposits near the surface which were easily accessible. So when the Industrial Revolution began in England, it found itself on very fertile soil.

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What factors caused the Industrial Revolution?

While the spinning jenny and other inventions that sprung from the scientific revolution were important to the birth of the Industrial Revolution, other underlying factors were also important. The strength and efficiency of England's agricultural system were important factors. As the demand for farmers decreased, this led to a supply of workers for manufacturing. In fact, England's population was also on the rise which further fueled the growth of the factory system. The growing population also created demand for manufactured goods and capital to invest in industrialism.

The availability of coal in England was important as well. Coal was used as a more efficient alternative to wood to fuel steam machinery. For resources that were not available, colonial trade networks were established to bring in materials for manufacturing. These networks also increased demand for the product and provided new markets for manufactured goods. The success of the early industrial model created excess capital that was reinvested in technology and efficiency.

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What were some causes of the Industrial Revolution?

England's Industrial Revolution began in 1760 due to a number of factors. First, England was experiencing an economic boom due to trade, and the money was invested in financial institutions that funded factories. Additionally, the 18th-century Agricultural Revolution in England resulted in an increase of food production and less need for agricultural workers due to technological improvements. These changes both decreased the number of agricultural jobs relative to factory jobs and lowered food costs, allowing families to spend more money on manufactured goods. England also possessed natural resources that facilitated the rise of industry; for example, the country contained a massive supply of coal to power their new factories. In the early 18th century, railroads were improved throughout England, which made exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods across the country much easier than it had been prior to the 18th century.

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