The Pythagorean Theorem is used quite often in calculating distances between two points. This comes up in surveying for analyzing land when determining where to put roads and buildings. In addition, it will arise when calculating the distances to inaccessible objects. That is, you use the Pythagorean Theorem in conjunction...

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The Pythagorean Theorem is used quite often in calculating distances between two points. This comes up in surveying for analyzing land when determining where to put roads and buildings. In addition, it will arise when calculating the distances to inaccessible objects. That is, you use the Pythagorean Theorem in conjunction with trigonometry when finding the width of a river if you cannot measure the width directly, or the height of a large building.

As a more whimsical example, the LCD dimensions for laptops are often given in terms of the length of the diagonal of the screen. However, the manufacturer would not need to measure the diagonal length, but instead use the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate it based on the height and width of the screen.