In my mind, management has to be able to adopt a long term view in understanding how projects and tasks fit together. It is management on all levels that has to ensure that hold-ups do not drastically alter the amount of time needed to complete a task. This involves several avenues of communication. One is communication with those involved in the tasks, themselves. This requires management to constantly be in contact with the individuals who are in charge of the completion of the tasks with status reports. Managers have to find out where workers are, help guide them on where they need to be, and ensure that this is done with as little as a combative or punitive nature as possible. In doing so, there will be less opportunity for "surprises" related to slowdown in time and various hold- ups in the completion of tasks. This constant stream of communication has to also exist between suppliers and consumers of goods. If a client is expecting something at a particular time, managers have to communicate with the client as to how this schedule is shaping up or if there has to be modifications within this. I think that the key to improving work performance in terms of preventing delays caused by various holds ups likes in management clearly knowing "the pulse" of where work projects are and where they need to be, a paradigm that results in effective management possessing both short- term and long- term vision.