California’s first Alien Land Law was passed in 1913. It stated that aliens who were not eligible for citizenship could not own agricultural land or have a lease on agricultural land longer than three years. The law impacted immigrant populations in California, especially the Japanese, and hoped to keep immigrants out of California.
In 1920 another version of the Alien Land Act was passed. It ended the leasing of lands to aliens, stated that aliens could not own stock in companies that owned agricultural land, and required agents of ineligible aliens to report on the actions of those people.
The law was upheld in two court cases. In 1923 the United States Supreme Court upheld the law and in 1946 it was upheld by the California Supreme Court. It wasn’t overturned until 1952 when the California Supreme Court overturned the law, stating it violated equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution.