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A brief answer is the only one that can be given to the fairly newly emergent field of interdisciplinary linguistic study, biolinguistics. According to renowned linguist Noam Chomsky (2004), the first and "most far-reaching" conference on biolinguistics, organized to discuss "the biolinguistic perspective," was held in 1974 and coined "biolinguistics" in the title of the conference, "Biolinguistics." Chomsky asserts that the questions raised at this conference still govern the search for data in today's biolinguistics studies.

As explained by Chomsky, from whom this entire answer will be drawn, biolinguistics considers all aspects of language ("sound, meaning, structure") as being a "state of some component of the mind." Mind is defined as the outcome of a process of the brain, a process of "emergences" that "we do not yet understand," according to Vernon Mountcastle. Biolinguistics is a science that relies upon "Newton's separation" of the mind-body duality, so that "no coherent mind-body problem remains" and so that all things falling under the designation of mental processes may be identified as and examined as what Joseph Priestley said were the result of the "organic structure of the brain."

The thesis in force in biolinguistics is that language, the focus of biolinguistics, is an entirely natural phenomenon "caused by the neurophysiological activities of the brain." This opposes earlier ideas such as those posited by Locke and Alfred Wallace asserting that mental functions--such as cognition, moral judgement, imagination, language, even personality--could not be explained by evolutionary principles alone but required recourse to the existence of an external power, force, or will to provide reasonable explanation: for Locke it was God and a “superadded” faculty, whereas for Wallace it was some unidentified additional universal force along the lines of the nature of gravity or cohesion. Thus biolinguistics represents a controversial (now as well as earlier) and radically new approach to mental "emergences" and linguistics. Present research is greatly aided by technological innovations such as fMRI and PET Scans. This is a brief encapsulized summary of biolinguistics.

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Basically, a bio-linguist tries to find out the how, the why, and the functions of the brain necessary for human language to be produced.

Whereas brain research is now in its hey day with so much information becoming available and then the opportunity to merge all this with linguistic data collected overtime there is continuing opportunity to learn more and more about this field of study.

Another aspect of bio-linguistics is the study of how speech and language evolved in humans.

 

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