As you can imagine, there were many huge changes in England between 1066 - 1660. One of the biggest changes was in the area of religion.
When Henry VIII married Catherine (1509), he had to get a papal bull to marry her, because she was the wife of his deceased brother. This act of getting the church's permission shows how powerful the church was. Indeed, the Church was the preeminent institution.
Henry VIII sought a divorce from his wife, Catherine, because she was not able to bear a child. The problem was a divorce was against the laws of the Catholic church. He petitioned, but the church refused. Therefore, Henry VIII decided to break away and start a national church, the Church of England. In time, England became a part of the Protestant Reformation. By the coronation of Elizabeth, England was a Protestant nation.
This not only made a huge impact upon England, but it also made a huge impact on the New World. When the Pilgrims came to America, they brought their Protestant faith.