The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was highly significant for Fidel Castro and Cuba. The primary benefit for Cuba was America's promise not to launch an invasion. Castro won control of Cuba by overthrowing its dictator, General Fulgencio Batista, in 1959. But Castro's grip on the country was tenuous, and he faced the implacable hostility of the United States. In 1961, the Washington-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion was an overt attempt to overthrow Castro. The American promise not to attack Cuba gave Castro an opportunity to build Communism in his nation without worrying about another invasion.
Castro was able to develop Cuba's health and education systems after 1962. Developing the economy was difficult, however, because of the continuing and crippling American economic embargo.
Although the United States promised not to invade, the relations between it and Cuba were far from amicable. There were numerous CIA-sponsored assassination attempts against Castro. After 1962, Castro tried to export Communist-led revolution to other countries, especially those in Latin America and Africa. One of Castro's colleagues, Che Guevara, was killed in Bolivia in 1967.