What is the basic principle of holography?
I mean the main terms and a short reasonable explanation.
Holography is the technique of creating holograms - that is special kind of images on 2-dimensional surfaces that create the effect of 3 dimensional objects.
The basic principle of holography is to create the image using two simultaneous beams of light, that interfere with each other to form a complex image on a suitable photographic film. These two beams of lights are created by splitting a light source in two with one source reflecting light from the object to be photographed on the film and the other falling directly on it from the source. The image developed in this way is the hologram. The light source used for holography is usually a laser light.
When light from any source falls on the film hologram, it changes this light to reconstruct the light pattern of original object, creating a three dimensional image.
The word 'holography' is made up of two Greek words, 'holos' meaning 'whole' and 'graphy' meaning writing. It is a technique which was invented in the year 1947 by the physicist Denis Gabor by which the light scattered by an object is recorded and later reconstructed so that a 3D impression is created as though the object is right in front of our eyes when the impression was first created. The technical term for a hologram is wavefront reconstruction. A laser beam along with mirrors and lenses are used to diffract the light into a series of very fine lines which is then captured on special holographic film. The resulting hologram is thus a true three-dimensional record of the original object.