C. G. Jung in his book Psychological Types coined the terms "introvert" and "extravert," (now more commonly spelled "extrovert") which rapidly came into popular usage because, as he said, such types are so obvious and have always been so generally known. With Bartleby, Melville seems to be presenting a portrait of an extreme introvert, almost a caricature of the type. There is nothing particularly wrong with Bartleby. He just has a hard time surviving in a world which is dominated by extraverts, in which employers are looking for "team players" and generally outgoing types. According to Jung's great book, many introverts have to pretend to be extraverts in order to survive and to be socially accepted. Bartleby is an introvert who accepts himself and refuses to be a team player. Jung states that people who spend their lives trying to be something other than what they really are will develop neuroses and can only be cured by learning to accept themselves.
Extraversion is "the style of the times" in the western world, and nowhere more so than in the U.S. Bartleby might not be considered weird if he lived in a country like India, but he is in New York City, which might be the extraversion capital of America, and he works in Wall Street, which might be the epicenter or nucleus of that extraversion capital.
Here is a significant quote from Jung's book, with the part about modern art championing subjectivity (which is virtually synonymous with introversion) set off in boldface:
The introvert is far more subject to misunderstanding than the extravert, not so much because the extravert is a more merciless or critical adversary than he himself might be, but because the style of the times which he himself imitates works against him. He finds himself in the minority, not in numerical relation to the extravert, but in relation to the general Western view of the world as judged by his feeling. In so far as he is a convinced participator in the general style, he undermines his own foundations; for the general style, acknowledging as it does only the visible and tangible values, is opposed to his specific principle. Because of its invisibility, he is obliged to depreciate the subjective factor, and must force himself to join in the extraverted overvaluation of the object. He himself sets the subjective factor at too low a value, and his feelings of inferiority are his chastisement for this sin. Little wonder, therefore, that it is precisely in the present epoch, and particularly in those movements which are somewhat ahead of the time, that the subjective factor reveals itself in exaggerated, tasteless forms of expression bordering on caricature. I refer to the art of the present day.
"Bartleby the Scrivener" might be considered art that is ahead of its time. Maybe the disorder is not Bartleby's but the disorder of society.
The Myers-Briggs type indicator test has become widely used in business, academia, and elsewhere. It is firmly based on Jung's Psychological Types. Versions of this test may be accessed online via Google and taken without charge. The results will show which of sixteen psychological types the test-taker belongs to and suggest which career choices might be best for that individual.