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Richard Cromwell (1626-1712) was the son of the British Lord Protectorate Oliver Cromwell who, after the execution of King Charles I in 1649, became England's first non-royal monarch. After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, Richard succeeded his father as England's second Lord Protectorate. He only served for nine months, when he resigned in 1659. Richard was never trusted by the British army since, unlike his father, he had no military experience. Actions by the British Parliament and House of Commons also sought to diminish the nation's military power, and under increasing public (and military) pressure, Cromwell resigned (and was reportedly put under house arrest). He was particularly unpopular with the Royalists, who dubbed him "Tumble Down Dick" and "Queen Dick." Cromwell fled to France, where he lived under several pseudonyms to protect his identity. He once commented that he "was betrayed by those he most trusted, and who had been most obliged by his father." Living well past his 85th birthday, Richard Cromwell lived longer than any ruler of England--despite enduring one the shortest reigns.
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