The author attempted to disclose the problematic laws in England during that era and apply them to the monarchy and also show how the situation impacted on the rest of the people. Thus the author took royalty to the streets of England in order to expose the leadership to the situation afflicting the majority under the leadership.
My idea is to afford a realizing sense of the exceeding severity of the laws of that day by inflicting some of their penalties upon the king himself, and allowing him a chance to see the rest of them applied to others. (Twain to Howells with regards to writing of the Prince and the Pauper)
The story was about a prince and a pauper born on the same day in different location of the same kingdom. The prince was of course born in wealth while, the pauper in abject penury. The two later met and for a while switched roles and places. The prince got an opportunity to learn the way of the world and the pauper got to live beyond his wildest dreams, until they switched back places and maintained their friendship.