Artificial Intelligence is the study of man-made computational devices and systems which can be made to act in a manner which we would be inclined to call intelligent.
It orginated in the 1950's. The first significant event of artificial intelligence was through the publication of a paper called "Computing Machinery and Intelligence."
"During argued that if a machine could past a certain test (which has become known as the 'Turing test') then we would have grounds to say that the computer was intelligent. The Turing test involves a human being (known as the 'judge') asking questions via a computer terminal to two other entities, one of which is a human being and the other of which is a computer." (Berkeley)