What arguments does Macbeth make in his soliloquy in act 1, scene 7 against the murder of Duncan in Macbeth?

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In act 1, scene 6 of Shakespeare's Macbeth, King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's castle. In act 1, scene 4, when Duncan tells Macbeth that he's going to visit him at his castle, Duncan gives Macbeth no specific reason for doing so.

DUNCAN. From hence to Inverness, And bind...

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In act 1, scene 6 of Shakespeare's Macbeth, King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's castle. In act 1, scene 4, when Duncan tells Macbeth that he's going to visit him at his castle, Duncan gives Macbeth no specific reason for doing so.

DUNCAN. From hence to Inverness,
And bind us further to you. (1.4.48-49)

Shakespeare's reason for doing so is perfectly clear. Duncan is now under Macbeth's roof, and this provides an opportunity for Macbeth to murder him and claim the throne of Scotland, as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth decided to do in act 1, scene 5.

In act 1, scene 7, Macbeth begins his soliloquy with every intention of killing Duncan, which he thinks he should do as soon as possible.

MACBETH. If it were done when ’tis done, then ’twere well
It were done quickly. (1.7.1-2)

Those words are barely out of Macbeth's mouth before he starts to reconsider his decision to kill Duncan. Macbeth begins to doubt that killing Duncan would necessarily give him everything he wants and considers that it might even cause more significant problems.

MACBETH. If the assassination
Could trammel up the consequence, and catch,
With his surcease, success; that but this blow
Might be the be-all and the end-all here,
But here, upon this bank and shoal of time,
We'd jump the life to come. (1.7.3-7)

If Macbeth could be assured that there would be no serious consequences of his actions, he wouldn't hesitate to go through with his plan to kill Duncan. Macbeth is concerned, however, that by killing Duncan, he might be encouraging others to think about taking the throne from him, putting his own life in jeopardy.

MACBETH. But in these cases
We still have judgement here, that we but teach
Bloody instructions, which being taught return
To plague the inventor. This even-handed justice
Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice
To our own lips. (1.7.7-12)

Macbeth starts to think of other reasons why he shouldn't kill Duncan.

MACBETH. He's here in double trust:
First, as I am his kinsman and his subject,
Strong both against the deed; then, as his host,
Who should against his murderer shut the door,
Not bear the knife myself. (1.7.12-16)

If Macbeth is an honorable man, which he considers himself to be (at least until he decides to kill Duncan), Macbeth wouldn't kill a "kinsman"—Macbeth and Duncan are cousins—and he wouldn't kill his own king.

Not only that, but Macbeth should protect Duncan from harm, not kill him himself.

MACBETH. Besides, this Duncan
Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been
So clear in his great office, that his virtues
Will plead like angels trumpet-tongued against
The deep damnation of his taking-off,
And pity, like a naked new-born babe,
Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubin horsed
Upon the sightless couriers of the air,
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye,
That tears shall drown the wind. (1.716-25)

These lines are somewhat reminiscent of Hamlet's reasoning in the scene when Claudius is kneeling in prayer and Hamlet has a perfect opportunity to kill him and avenge Claudius's murder of Hamlet's father (Hamlet, 3.3.76-98). Hamlet hesitates because he doesn't want to kill Claudius while he's praying and thereby send Claudius's soul to heaven.

Here, Macbeth has a perfect opportunity to kill Duncan, but he hesitates because he knows that Duncan is a good man and that Duncan has been a good king who doesn't deserve to be murdered. Macbeth fears that there will be a considerable outcry against him if he murders Duncan.

MACBETH. I have no spur
To prick the sides of my intent, but only
Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself
And falls on the other— (1.7.25-28)

Macbeth realizes that he has no reason for killing Duncan other than his own all-consuming ambition. Macbeth is also concerned that he might fail, either in killing Duncan or in taking the throne, and wonders if it is foolish even to try.

Lady Macbeth interrupts Macbeth's train of thought, but while they're arguing about Macbeth deciding that "[they] will proceed no further in this business" (1.7.34), Macbeth thinks of another reason for either delaying or abandoning their plan to murder Duncan.

MACBETH. He hath honor'd me of late, and I have bought
Golden opinions from all sorts of people,
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss,
Not cast aside so soon. (1.7.35-38)

Macbeth doesn't want to compromise the honors he's received from Duncan—being declared Thane of Cawdor, for example—and he doesn't want to lose the high praise or squander the good will of the Scottish people that he's risked his life to achieve.

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Macbeth mentions that Duncan is at his castle in "double trust," which means that Duncan has two reasons to trust Macbeth, and that Macbeth will do him no harm and will protect him.

Firstly, Duncan is his "kinsman," which means that they are related to one another, not only because they are citizens of the same country, but also in blood. Duncan and Macbeth are cousins, all the more reason for Macbeth not to harm him – such a deed would be unnatural in the extreme.

Secondly, Macbeth is Duncan's "subject," and as his subject, he has to honor his king and show allegiance and loyalty. A loyal subject should not even consider the thought of bringing harm to his king, let alone plot his assassination.

These two reasons on their own speak "strong ... against the deed." They are more than ample conviction for Macbeth not to kill Duncan.

Furthermore, Duncan is also Macbeth's guest, and it is imperative for a host to ensure the safety of his guests. It would go against the grain if the host should consider committing any dark, obnoxious deed against his guest/s.

Also, Duncan has been a kind and gentle king. He has taken care of his subjects and has not been a tyrannical and despotic leader. He has been gentle and "clear" in his "great office" which implies that his actions were never questionable – further evidence that killing him would be a purposeless exercise.

Because Duncan is such a good king, there would be a clamor to bring the murderer/s to justice. There would be a cry in heaven against the assassination. Macbeth would be damned forever – more than enough reason to not even consider Duncan's assassination. Macbeth also realizes that not only would he be damned, but also that those loyal to Duncan (which more than likely would be practically the whole of Scotland) would seek revenge against the callous murderer.

These are the reasons Macbeth provides against killing Duncan. The only motive for him to continue with this dastardly deed would be his unbridled ambition and greed.   

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Macbeth tries to talk himself into killing Duncan, but he does not want to because Duncan has promoted him, because they are kinsman, and because Duncan is his guest.

Macbeth is concerned about killing Duncan because he is his kinsman and his subject.  He should be loyal to Duncan, not murder him.

He's here in double trust: 

First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, 

Strong both against the deed (Act 1, scene 7)

Macbeth notes that he is also Duncan’s host, and it is his responsibility to “shut the door” against his murderer, not murder him himself.

Macbeth also notes that Duncan is a good king, and does not deserve death.

Besides, this Duncan 

Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 

So clear in his great office, that his virtues 

Will plead like angels trumpet-tongued against 

The deep damnation of his taking-off (Act 1, scene 7)

Duncan has done nothing to cause Macbeth to kill him.  He has been a loyal subject to the king, and there is no reason for the king to suspect otherwise.  It is only Macbeth’s ambition that causes him to murder Duncan.  His ambition, and his wife’s prodding.

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