What are three problems that the poet finds with a summer's day in Sonnet 18 in lines 1-4: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more...

What are three problems that the poet finds with a summer's day in Sonnet 18 in lines 1-4:

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperature: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date

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The speaker of Shakespeare's "Sonnet 18" compares his loved one and a summer day and finds the summer day to be lacking. In the first four lines of the poem the speaker identifies three shortcomings of a summer day.

They say that it is too severe. The speaker's love is more "temperate," or mild and modest. This is a criticism of a summer day's harsh temperature and unpredictable changes in weather. Perhaps related is that, on the whole, the speaker finds the subject of his heart's affection to be more "lovely" than a summer's day.

Additional, he says that a summer's day is rough with vulnerable living things. Line three takes issue with a summer's day in that its "rough winds do shake the darling buds of May." Note not only that the winds are rough, but the speaker observes that they are abusing the sweet, vulnerable, "darling" buds of May. Ostensibly, he is arguing that his love would never be so rough with such a gentle living thing as a bud.

He also says that it is too brief. The speaker faults a summer's day (or rather, the entire summer season) as being all too short: its "lease hath all too short a date." We can infer that the speaker's love is more enduring and present, whereas the summer is a series of fleeting sensations. Both a summer's day and the summer season itself come and go too quickly to be enjoyed.

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First, the speaker says of his beloved that she is more lovely and more "temperate" than a summer's day. Temperate can mean the use of restraint. The speaker then goes on to say that the sun can be too hot or too hazy in its blazing heat: 

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, 

And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; (5-6) 

Therefore, a summer's day might be too hot or too hazy and humid; whereas, the speaker's beloved is more temperate, restrained, not tending to go to either of those extremes. The other complaint the speaker has is that summer does not last long: it "hath all too short a date." The speaker adds that the "summer" of his beloved (the beauty of her life and/or the memory of it) is eternal. So, summer is fleeting relative to the eternity by which his beloved will be remembered: even if it is in the "lines" of the sonnet ("this") itself: 

Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this and this gives life to thee. 

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