What are three literary elements in the poem "Church Going" by Philip Larkin?  

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First, Larkin uses an interesting pair of words in the title to convey a double meaning. "Church Going" explains the speaker's physical act of visiting this church and describing the scene he finds there. It also conveys that the church is going; it seems to be disappearing from importance in society.

With the exception of the second stanza, no stanzas end in a completed thought. In effect, this creates a long sense of inner dialogue as the speaker is torn between what purpose the church serves and the fate it seems doomed to suffer. This is echoed in the only stanza which does end in a complete thought, Stanza 2, where he notes that "the place was not worth stopping for." He notes the contradiction in the very next stanza:

Yet stop I did: in fact I often do,
And always end much at a loss like this,
Wondering what to look for; wondering, too,
When churches fall completely out of use
What we shall turn them into . . .

All other stanzas become a flow of thought, running over into each other just as his reasoning seems to do.

Repetition is used in the first line of the final stanza:

A serious house on serious earth it is

This conveys the overall tone and the importance the speaker places on the purpose the church has always served. In the same stanza, he notes that

Since someone will forever be surprising
A hunger in himself to be more serious

Those longing for wisdom have always gravitated toward the church, and the speaker conveys its importance in his final thoughts through this repetition.

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Three notable elements in "Church Going" could be considered to include the rhyme scheme, the careful selection of vocabulary to create word-pictures in the mind of the reader, and the conscious effort to leave the message(s) of the poem open to interpretation by the reader.

The rhyme scheme seems calculated to make the reader feel slightly out-of-balance, as does the speaker while conducting his/her explorations of the church. The pattern of rhyme could be represented as "ababcadcd", very complicated and unexpected.

Descriptive phrases present impressions of the church building itself

matting, seats, and stone, 
And little books; sprawlings of flowers, cut 
For Sunday, brownish now; some brass and stuff 
Up at the holy end; the small neat organ

and of the emotions the visit raises. The speaker "wonders" about what will happen to the building and how people will think of it in years to come, but yet "it pleases me to stand in silence here."

In the end, the speaker seems unsure of exactly what he feels about the place or why s/he stopped there, and the reader is left with that same question to be determined for him/herself.

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