What are the three stages of Winston's reintegration in 1984?

According to O'Brien, the three stages of Winston Smith's reintegration are learning, understanding, and acceptance.

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In the first stage of Winston's reintegration in the Ministry of Love, he is physically tortured and forced to confess to imaginary crimes against the Party. Party intellectuals continually interrogate Winston during this phase and break him down mentally. Winston is completely exhausted and in constant pain during this stage as O'Brien and other Party intellectuals demonstrate Big Brother's complete authority. During this stage, Winston recognizes and acknowledges that he cannot defeat the Party and learns that complete and utter power is the government's primary concern. He realizes his attempts to outwit the Party are useless and learns that the totalitarian regime controls virtually every aspect of reality.

In the second stage of Winston's reintegration, O'Brien utilizes a machine known as "the Dial," which inflicts an immense amount of pain on Winston when O'Brien feels that he is lying. During this phase, O'Brien influences Winston to dismiss logic and exercise doublethink. Winston tries his best to genuinely believe that two plus two equals five, which will prove that he accepts the Party's version of reality and is making progress towards becoming completely orthodox.

In the final stage of Winston's reintegration, he is taken to Room 101, where he faces his worst fear: flesh-eating rats. This phase of the program is designed to affect Winston's innermost emotions and influence him to betray everything he loves and believes in. Faced with the possibility of being consumed by ferocious rats, Winston betrays Julia and fully submits to Big Brother. By betraying Julia, Winston completely loses his humanity and transforms into an obedient, submissive Party member, who is completely orthodox and has an affinity for Big Brother.

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The three stages of Winston's integration can be described as, first, outward capitulation to power; second, inward assimilation of the will of the Party; and finally, betrayal of the one he loves so that he has no independent loyalty apart from the Party.

Physical torture, or what O'Brien calls the boot stamping the face, leads Winston to outward obedience and capitulation to the regime. This is the easiest step in his reassimilation, and it begins from the time of his arrest, when a rubber truncheon to the elbow brings him to his knees. Under torture by O'Brien, Winston confesses and physically obeys the Party.

But that's hardly enough for the Party: they want him to really believe what they tell him, and they also want to own his soul. The second part of his reintegration, which also involves torture, convinces him to accept that two plus two equals five. He can't simply say it, he has to believe it to be true. He has to utterly assimilate the idea that there is no objective truth independent of the Party's will.

Even that, however, doesn't satisfy the demands of the regime. Winston still has a sense of integrity apart from the Party because he has never once betrayed Julia. When O'Brien takes Winston to Room 101 and puts the cage with the huge, starving rat over his head, Winston, in terror, betrays Julia, asking with complete sincerity that the rat be used to attack Julia instead. At that point, he is broken, meaning he can be released back into society.

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As mentioned by the previous educator, there are three stages of Winston's reintegration: learning, understanding and acceptance. 

Each of these three stages comes with a very specific form of torture, designed to break Winston down and make him realise that resistance against Big Brother is futile.

In the first stage, for example, Winston learns that the party is all-powerful and will use any method to bring about his domination. We see this through the violent beatings that he suffers and the "Party intellectuals" who inject Winston with an unknown chemical. O'Brien also encourages Winston's learning by saying that Julia has betrayed him; a fact designed to cause distress and demonstrate that the party can break anyone down, even the most rebellious.

In the second stage, O'Brien increases the intensity of Winston's torture with the introduction of a machine called the dials. This machine enables O'Brien to inflict pain on Winston (controlled by a lever) as he questions him on the party. If Winston gets a question wrong (does not answer according to party ideology) then O'Brien cranks the lever, causing more pain:

O'Brien had pushed the lever of the dial up to thirty-five.

"That was stupid, Winston, stupid!" he said. "You should know better than to say a thing like that."

Finally, the third stage of Winston's reintegration is represented by Room 101. There is much mystery surrounding the contents of this room. When asked, O'Brien tells Winston that it contains "the worst thing in the world." When Winston is sent there, in Part Three, Chapter Five, he is confronted by rats, his ultimate fear. He is so overcome with terror that he almost immediately relents:

Do it to Julia! Do it to Julia! Not me!

O'Brien has thus demonstrated the effectiveness of the three stages of reintegration. Having betrayed Julia, the woman he loved, Winston is no longer considered to pose a threat to the party's supremacy. He is released from the Ministry of Love, completely reformed.

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There are two ways of understanding this question. If by reintegration we mean Winston's reintegration as a whole, caring, humane person, the first stage would be starting the diary, which means thinking for himself. The second and most important would be falling in love with Julia and establishing a part-time domestic relationship with her in the room above Mr. Charrington's shop. Third is joining the alleged conspiracy to overthrow the government, of which Winston thinks O'Brien is a part. The second step gives Winston the willingness to sacrifice himself for another person (beyond Big Brother), and the third gives him the sense of being part of something larger than himself that he can commit himself to wholly.

However, if we understand his "reintegration" as his being refitted for the Party and realigned with its ideology, the three stages would be: his imprisonment and torture, culminating in his ability to accept two plus two equaling five; Room 101, where he faces his greatest fear and betrays Julia, the one thing he said he would never do; and finally, his release back into society as a broken but loyal man, awaiting the bullet that will kill him. The question Orwell raises at the end, with Winston's sudden, unbidden happy memory of a time playing a game with his mother, is whether the state ever fully reintegrates him.

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The three stages I see of Winston's re-integration are these:

1. TORTURE: In the Ministry of Love, Winston is beaten and tortured for an indetermined amount of time. Throughout this process, sometimes he and O'Brien talk, other times it seems a regular task of the day.

2. BRAINWASHING: Up until this point, Winston hung onto his rational mind. From this point forward, Winston comes to accept every falsehood he previously knew as true. This occured in Room 101 when Winston allowed a complete turn on Julia before they tortured him more with the rat cage over his head. We see that this has come full circle when the mother he used to think fondly of he thinks he sees and could care less. We see this when he accepts that 2 + 2 = 5.

3. LOVE OF BIG BROTHER: The Party will accept nothing but total and complete allegiance. We see this at the very end when Winston fully and completely realizes his love for Big Brother.

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All three of these stages take place in Part III.  Having completed the first phase of his treatment, “learning,” Winston moves to the second stage, “understanding,” which he must complete before being allowed to advance to the third stage, “acceptance.”

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