What are the three main conflicts in the novel 1984? How are they resolved?

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Man vs. Society: This is the central conflict of the novel, as Winston Smith tries to forge his own way in a society that does not allow for individual thought. He begins to write a journal reflecting his hatred of Oceania and the way this life which is forced upon...

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Man vs. Society: This is the central conflict of the novel, as Winston Smith tries to forge his own way in a society that does not allow for individual thought. He begins to write a journal reflecting his hatred of Oceania and the way this life which is forced upon him isn't a life at all. He longs for the freedom to make his own choices and to be free from the Thought Police and Big Brother's watchful eye. Of course, he also wants to live, so he doesn't say these things outright, even hiding his writing from the telescreens, and is careful with whom he shares his true feelings. Eventually, society wins after the Thought Police learn of his deviation from their norms; they torture him and push him to sacrifice Julia in order to save himself. Big Brother converts Winston to follow their prescribed order of society, leaving no one in Oceania with the power to think for themself any longer.

Man vs. Technology: The Party monitors all movements, conversations, and even thoughts of the people in Oceania via telescreens, microphones, and hidden cameras and microphones. No one can escape the intrusive presence of Big Brother, and most have learned to passively comply with the government and pay little attention to the ways the government spies on them. However, Winston learns to hide from the telescreens to compose his journal and believes that his meetings with Julia are private. Ultimately, the technological powers prove greater than Winston's efforts to hide from them, and he is caught with Julia by a hidden camera. The government, therefore, successfully ensures control of its citizens with advanced technologies.

Man vs Himself: This becomes especially evident in the final pages of the novel, when Winston is faced with saving himself or Julia. This destroys his sense of self, as he loves Julia and has always believed that the government could never force him to betray her. He struggles with survival and longs for freedom but believes himself incapable of inflicting harm on Julia. However, when faced with rats chewing off his face, his inner resolve breaks:

But he had suddenly understood that in the whole world there was just
ONE person to whom he could transfer his punishment—ONE body that he could thrust between himself and the rats. And he was shouting frantically, over and over.

"Do it to Julia! Do it to Julia! Not me! Julia! I don’t care what you do to her. Tear her face off, strip her to the bones. Not me! Julia! Not me!"

Winston betrays the loyalty he believes he has to Julia and, most importantly, to himself when faced with his greatest fear, and by doing so, he succumbs entirely to the will of the Party.

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The three main conflicts in George Orwell's 1984 are:

1.  Individual (freedom) vs. the state: Winston is limited by the state in terms of every right and freedom imaginable, namely free speech and privacy.  He is constantly surveilled, and all attempts to record thoughts are prohibited.  The main symbol in the novel is the boot crushing the face of its citizens.  Torture is the only real memory that should remain:

He felt the smash of truncheons on his elbows and iron-shod boots on his shins; he saw himself grovelling on the floor, screaming for mercy through broken teeth. He hardly thought of Julia. He could not fix his mind on her. He loved her and would not betray her; but that was only a fact, known as he knew the rules of arithmetic. He felt no love for her, and he hardly even wondered what was happening to her. He thought oftener of O'Brien, with a flickering hope. O'Brien might know that he had been arrested. The Brotherhood, he had said, never tried to save its members.

2.  The state vs. language: the Ministry of Truth is a propaganda machine that attacks the English language, whittling it down to the bare minimum, a kind of technical, utilitarian language that replaces personal words in order to prevent rebellion.

Whenever he began to talk of the principles of Ingsoc, doublethink, the mutability of the past, and the denial of objective reality, and to use Newspeak words, she became bored and confused and said that she never paid any attention to that kind of thing. One knew that it was all rubbish, so why let oneself be worried by it? ...In a way, the world-view of the Party imposed itself most successfully on people incapable of understanding it. They could be made to accept the most flagrant violations of reality, because they never fully grasped the enormity of what was demanded of them, and were not sufficiently interested in public events to notice what was happening. By lack of understanding they remained sane. They simply swallowed everything, and what they swallowed did them no harm, because it left no residue behind, just as a grain of corn will pass undigested through the body of a bird.

3.  The past vs. the present vs. the future: the state cuts off history from its citizens in order to create a vacuum of control.  In this way, the citizens of Oceania are cut off from each other and the outside world: they do not know who they are fighting.   They do not take pride in their families' histories, only the state's history, which is all propaganda.

Even at that time Winston had not imagined that the people who were wiped out in the purges had actually committed the crimes that they were accused of. But this was concrete evidence; it was a fragment of the abolished past, like a fossil bone which turns up in the wrong stratum and destroys a geological theory. It was enough to blow the Party to atoms, if in some way it could have been published to the world and its significance made known.

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