What are the symbols in the farm?

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Among the many examples of symbolism displayed in the novel Animal Farm:

  • The farm itself is representative of modern day Russia and the political upheaval of the time. The animals' revolt is based upon the earlier Russian Revolution.
  • Napoleon is based upon Joseph Stalin.
  • Snowball is based upon Leon Trotsky.
  • Squealer represents the truth-destroying propaganda employed (reminiscent of Nazi leader Joseph Goebbels).
  • Moses, the raven, is representative of religion.
  • Benjamin represents the Russian intellectual who is not involved with politics.
  • Boxer represents the hard-working common man.
  • Mr. Jones represents the previous Russian Czar Nicholas, overthrown during the Russian Revolution.
  • Mr. Frederick represents Adolph Hitler, an ally who later turns on his Russian comrades.
  • Mr. Pilkington represents Great Britain.
  • Old Major represents Karl Marx. 
  • The surrounding farms are based on Russia's European neighbors.
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