Lev Vygotsky developed a theory of cognitive development that focused on a child's sociocultural situation and how that influences his or her thinking. Let's look at that theory and then identify some of its strengths and weaknesses.
Vygotsky argued that children do not necessarily develop in rigid stages like those of Piaget. Rather children develop as they learn from the culture, environment, and individuals around them. Children acquire thinking strategies, values, beliefs, and language from their social situations and interactions, according to Vygotsky.
Vygotsky's theory certainly has some strengths. For one thing, it does not try to fit all children into a particular developmental pattern. Rather, it looks at individuals. It also focuses extensively on children's social interactions and environment and how they contribute to their learning. Vygotsky pays close attention to language skills and development, too, and he recognizes that multiple processes are involved in learning and cognitive development.
There are, of course, some weaknesses to the theory. For one thing, the lack of developmental categories can make the theory's application more difficult for educators. Further, Vygotsky does not particularly distinguish between cultures, which can lead to problems due to cultural differences. Vygotsky's theory is notoriously difficult to test and objectively measure, as children's environments and social situations are all different and variable. Finally, because the theory is difficult to test and measure, it is also difficult to refute, for it lacks a set of specific hypotheses that may be proven or disproven.