What are the similarities and differences between the three plans for Reconstruction? (Lincoln’s, Johnson’s, and Congress’s plans.) Why were they different?

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Abraham Lincoln's plan of Reconstruction was conceived to reunite a divided country with a healing hand. His motives can best be summarized by the words from his second inaugural address, which advocated that the United States heal itself "with malice towards none, with charity for all." This plan was centered on the ten percent rule. This magnanimous provision stated that the former Confederate states would be welcomed back into the Union once ten percent of their voters publicly swore their loyalty to the country. The states would then be permitted to draft new state constitutions and elect their legislatures. Amnesty would be given to all but the highest-ranking Confederates who swore loyalty. Lincoln hoped that this generous and kind approach would encourage the rebels to accept defeat.

When Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln's death, he took an even more lenient approach to Reconstruction. A southerner himself, Johnson was not so much concerned with protecting blacks as he...

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