What are the most important reasons that prevent Doctor Faustus from repenting?

The most important reasons that prevent Doctor Faustus from repenting are being deceived by devils, who don't want him to be saved, and his own pride, which tells him his sins are so bad that he cannot receive God's redemption.

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The devils with whom Doctor Faustus have made a pact constantly divert him from repentance in various ways and encourage him in the lie that he is beyond repentance and salvation.

However, Faustus had the choice at any moment before death to choose to ask for God's forgiveness and to be rejoined to God's people, but he does not do so. This is because of his pride. Even though God can redeem anyone, no matter what they have done, Faustus has convinced himself that his sins are so bad that even God can't forgive him. We might call this a reverse form of pride, but it is pride, because Faustus is taking on himself decisions that belong to God. Faustus is assuming that he knows more than God. Ironically, because the devil is far less powerful than he pretends to be, Faustus has not been given the chance to do much damage, despite selling his soul.

We can see Faustus's inability to repent play out in the final scene. As death approaches and Faustus realizes he will have to spend eternity in hell, he becomes very frightened and tries to bargain with God for a lighter sentence, but then, rather than ask for mercy and grace, he turns away and says,

But mine [soul] must live still to be plagu'd in hell.

This is Faustus's decision, not God's.

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