What are the literary devices in "A Red, Red, Rose" by Robert Burns?

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One literary device Burns makes heavy use of in this poem is anaphora. Anaphora occurs when the words at the beginning of a line are repeated. In "A Red, Red Rose," this happens, for example, in the first and third lines when the speaker says:

O my...

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One literary device Burns makes heavy use of in this poem is anaphora. Anaphora occurs when the words at the beginning of a line are repeated. In "A Red, Red Rose," this happens, for example, in the first and third lines when the speaker says:

O my Luve's like ...

O my Luve's like ...

He then likens his love to both a rose and a melody. Anaphora occurs again when the speaker repeats:

Till a' the seas gang dry

All the "ands" that begin lines are also examples of anaphora, and you will find more instances of anaphora as you examine the poem. Anaphora creates a sense of rhythm and emphasis.

The speaker also uses the literary device of apostrophe, which is to directly address an object or absent person. In this case, he addresses his true love. The apostrophe becomes particularly clear in the final stanza:

And fare-thee-weel, my only Luve! /And fare-thee-weel, a while! /And I will come again, my Luve, /Tho' 'twere ten thousand mile!

The speaker employs hyperbole or exaggeration in the final line of the poem when he writes that he will return to his love even if he has to travel 10,000 miles. He knows he won't have to journey anywhere near that distance, but the hyperbole emphasizes how much he loves his beloved and the lengths he is willing to go to be with her. You will find other instances of hyperbole as you read the verses.

The poet also uses Scottish dialect or vernacular, which lends a personal, informal feeling to the poem and stresses the intimacy between the speaker and his beloved. Examples of dialect are "bonnie lass" for beautiful girl and "gang" for going.

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It sounds as if you are having some difficulty understanding the meaning of the term "literary devices." These are basically ways of organizing language beyond what is necessary to create meaning. Thus devices like meter, rhyme, repetition of sounds, figures of speech, and non-literal uses of words are all "literary devices." Literary critics usually divide these into "figures of sound" and "figures of thought."

In terms of sound, first you could look at meter. The poem consists of four-line stanzas, with the first and third lines written in iambic tetrameter and the second and fourth in iambic trimeter. The stanzas are rhymed ABCB. This scheme, known as "ballad meter," identifies the poem as belonging to the literary genre of the ballad. We also can see examples of alliteration, or repetition of consonant sounds in "red, red rose." 

In terms of figures of thought, Burns uses "simile" or explicit comparison in the initial stanza when he compares the woman to a rose and to a melody. He also uses "hyperbole" or exaggeration in describing how much he loves his beloved.

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For such a short poem, Burns certainly packs a lot of literary devices.  First, Burns uses a simile to compare his love to a flower--"Oh, my Luve's LIKE a red, red rose..." Secondly, his love is symbolized by that rose, and by repeating the color "red", he is how beautiful, how pure his love is.  He uses another simile in the third line to once again compare his love to something beautiful; this time, he compares his love to a beautiful song--"My Luve's like a melodie..."  Burns wrote in a lyric style, meaning this poem often reads like a song would--hence, the repetition of some key phrases.  There is also obvious alliteration with the "r" sounds--"...a red, red rose..."  The use of alliteration also furthers the sing-song musicality of the poem. 

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