What are the literary devices from act 4, scene 2 in the conversation between Lady Macduff and her son? Passage begins approximately at line 30.

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The scene begins with a double entendre: Lady Macduff says of her son, "Fathered he is, and yet he’s fatherless." She's saying that her son has a father, which, of course, he does, but that his father is as good as dead, because he has been branded a traitor.

After telling her son that his father is dead, she asks how he will live. He says he will live "as birds do" and then clarifies that he will do what he must do to survive. She asks why he doesn't fear danger from the "pitfalls" of life. She is referring both to the difficulties of everyday survival and to the dangers from evil men. Her son is naive and believes that because he is weak and helpless, he is not in danger, as there's nothing to gain by "trapping" him.

The discussion of birds is an extended metaphor throughout act 4. Lady Macduff divides people into birds that are hunters and those that are prey. She scolds her husband in abstentia because he has fled accusations of treason, abandoning his family to danger:

He wants the natural...

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